SCIENTIFIC REPORT

International Conference on

LOW COST HIGH PHYSICS AND APPROPRIATE SOLUTIONS TO REAL LIFE PROBLEMS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

8 10 December 2009 Yaoundé , Cameroon

Organised by

Cameroon Physical Society

With the support of


The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics

European Physical Society/IGPD

University of Yaounde I Faculty of Sciences

Objectives:

The first of the series of the CPS International Conference on Low Cost High Physics and Appropriate Solutions to Real Life Problems in Developing Countries took place, as planned, from 8 to 10 December 2009 at the University of Yaoundé I ( Cameroon ).

The conference was the place for the presentation of scientific achievements in physics that fulfil the following criteria:

Low cost research topics that can be covered entirely (theory, experiment and application) with low funding,
High level scientific topics that have been published or are publishable in good international journals,
Impact on the technological, economic and social development in developing countries.

The organizing committee was the Executive Bureau of the Cameroon Physical Society, supported by the four onorary members of the society, and an International advisory board.
Funding: The direct funding of the workshop came from
International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste , Italy ,
International Group of Physics for Development at the European Physical Society;
Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I,
Cameroon Physical Society

Attendance: The number of the participants was 64 coming from the following countries: Benin (1), Brazil (2), Central African Republic (2), Congo (2), France (2), Nigeria (1) and Cameroon (54). (See the list of participants).

Presentations: 33 presentations were given on topics from diverse fields, most of which emphasize on problem-solving cases in developing countries. For instance:


In the field of Nonlinear Physics and complex systems:

Nonlinear dynamics for appropriate development: locally made and cheap devices for automation process and masking of telecommunication
Semiconductor lasers research and possible applications in developing countries,
Mathematical Modelling of Biological Populations in Fragmented Habitats
Understanding the dynamical behaviour of wooden beams under fires to estimate the safety time in mechanical and civil infrastructures
Modernization and miniaturization of tam tams from its scientific study
Determination of body attitude and positions from biomechanical data

In the field of renewable energies:

Methods to define the national renewable energies potentials and policy of each country with particular emphasis on Cameroon
Design and fabrication of automatic solar water heaters
Pumping a CW double clad optical fibre laser with a sun light
Modelling of load parameters for the optimisation of photovoltaic pumping system for irrigation and temperature regulation of a solar heating system

In the field of Medical Physics and Water Research

Improving healthcare in low revenue countries by automated analysis of mammograms
How collaborations can help saving research funds: Modelling of fight against malaria
Elemental Iron for potable water in rural areas of developing countrie

Methods for research and research motivations
I Low cost physics: using creativity for development s
Computational approach: one way to do high physics at low cost in developing countries
Brazilian system of research and development
Development of emergent countries through education, science and technological innovation
New strategic partnership between France and Cameroon Universities and high schools: case of the Euro-graduation access consortium
New pedagogic methods for teaching of Physics in developing countries
Besides those topics which have direct impact on developmental issues such as health services, agriculture, safety, modernization of the products of the African cultural heritage, some other interesting topics focussed on fundamental research in nonlinear science, atomic and molecular physics, condensed matter physics, etc.
All the presentations were followed by a series of non-stop questions, indicating the quest of understanding from all the participants

Participation of students:

Thanks to the encouragement from the International Group of Physics for Development of the European Physical Society (IGP/EPS), support was given to young students who presented a talk during the conference. Moreover, the support from IGP was used to award prizes to seven (7) laureates of the national competition of Physics organized by the Cameroon Physical Society during the year 2009 between the 20 best bachelor students, 5 students selected (through a local competition organized by the Cameroon Physical Society local committee in each university) from each of the four State universities which took part to the competition (University of Yaoundé I, University of Douala, University of Dschang and University of Ngaoundéré)


Special trainings:

Before and after the conference days, Professor Hilda Cerdeira and Roberto André Kraenkel of the Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Sao Paulo as well as Professor François Piuzzi of CEA (IRAMIS), France and IGPD gave special trainings and discussed with the participants and other interested people. The training by Professor André Kraenkel consisted of four courses of 1 hour and 30 mn each, on Biomathematics. It was attended not only by the participants, but also by PhD and Master students of Physics, Mathematics and Computer Sciences of the University of Yaoundé .
The second training was delivered by Professor François Piuzzi of CEA (IRAMIS), France and IGPD on the use of creativity for development of practical tools for research and teaching. After giving some typical cases where creativity has been useful in the design of equipment with successful implementation in research and technology, Professor Piuzzi gave a practical training to students on how to use out-of-order devices (computer, scanners, etc;) for creativity
Professor Hilda Cerdeira devoted all her time to discussions and advices to young researchers and PhD students on various topics and various research points have been gained by all those people, some even including topics that could constitute a subject of sandwich training between Brazilian and African Physicists.

Outcomes of the conference:

At the end of the conference, the participants were asked to give the outcomes they got. Among various outcomes, the following points were stressed strongly:

knowledge on how to use creativity to devise equipments for high level research and teaching from appliances of out-of- order devices such as computers, scanners, cameras, mobile phones
Information on various problems where the physicists' expertises have been and can be used to solve real-life problems using high level physics and low cost equipment
Information on other systems of science and innovation for development with recommendations on how to act in order to get support from the State

Besides, various links and networks were established
In particular, various contacts were given to individual scientists for collaboration on their specialized topics
Possibility of launching various research groups was discussed
A multidisciplinary collaboration between African and Brazilian physicists was pointed ou
Contacts are to be established with individual and institutions around the world (addresses received during the conference) working on low cost equipments for high level physic s
Participants from other countries ( Congo and Central African Republic ) expressed their intention to create their national physical society and the Cameroon Physical Society opened its membership to physicists from neighbouring countries
Besides those topics which have direct impact on developmental issues such as health services, agriculture, safety, modernization of the products of the African cultural heritage, some other interesting topics focussed on fundamental research in nonlinear science, atomic and molecular physics, condensed matter physics, etc.
All the presentations were followed by a series of non-stop questions, indicating the quest of understanding from all the participants

Participation of students:

Thanks to the encouragement from the International Group of Physics for Development of the European Physical Society (IGP/EPS), support was given to young students who presented a talk during the conference. Moreover, the support from IGP was used to award prizes to seven (7) laureates of the national competition of Physics organized by the Cameroon Physical Society during the year 2009 between the 20 best bachelor students, 5 students selected (through a local competition organized by the Cameroon Physical Society local committee in each university) from each of the four State universities which took part to the competition (University of Yaoundé I, University of Douala, University of Dschang and University of Ngaoundéré)